5255 Questions and Answers about Combat Robotics
from Team Run Amok

Team Run Amok receives a lot of email asking about the design and operation of combat robots. In 2003 my son and team member Aaron Joerger (then 12 years old) requested a question and answer page to document our responses.

Got a question? We welcome combat robot questions. Check the Ask Aaron Archives first to see if your question has already been answered, then click the blue button.

The Ask Aaron Archives Click to browse thousands of previously answered questions by category, or search for specific topics. Includes FAQ

Caution   Even small combat robots can be dangerous! Learn proper construction and safety techniques before attempting to build and operate a combat robot. Do not operate combat robots without proper safeguards.
In Memorium: Aaron Joerger, 1991 - 2013
The 'Ask Aaron' project was important to Aaron, and I continue the site in his memory. Thank you for the many kind messages of sympathy and support that have found their way to me. Aaron's obituary
- Mark Joerger   

Welcome to my website  Recent Questions

Q: can the jlx overdrive rc toy be a good fighting robot with some modifications? [St. Louis, Missouri]

[Two minutes later]

Q: can the jlx overdrive rc toy be a good fighting robot with some modifications? [St. Louis, Missouri]

[One minute later]

Q: forget that [St. Louis, Missouri]

[Three minutes later]

Q: what are simple wedge kits [St. Louis, Missouri]

A: [Mark J.] You asked versions of these questione earlier in the week, Missouri. They were promptly answered. If you'll be so kind as to scroll down the page a bit you'll find the answers to them, plus one other question you asked that you seem to have forgotten about.

Q: What was the earliest use of an asymmetrical spinning weapon? [Philladelphia]

A: [Mark J.] Well, there was that fight where 'South Bay Mauler' lost one of it's impactors and went all wobbly but kept spinning. Does that count?

1. Can you put a 'D' shaft in a linear or ball bearing?

A: [Mark J.] Ball bearing - generally yes, but the manufacturer may recommend a specific shaft diameter tollerance.

Linear bearing - depends on specific bearing design. Consult the bearing manufacturer.

Assorted servo horns 2. What is the purpose of shaft collars?

A: A shaft collar locks onto the shaft to prevent it from sliding thru a bearing/bushing. Set-screw collars suck -- use a clamping collar if available.

3. How do you connect a servo to the sheet metal you want to lift? Thank you. [Seattle, Washington]

A: Servos come with one or more 'servo horns' that mate to the splines on the servo output shaft. Select a suitable horn and run sheet metal screws thru the metal and into a few horn holes. Yes, I said horn holes -- you're welcome.

Q: Hello, beetle fbs guy again. Not a real question but rather and explanation. If you recall you suggested I use an aluminum spacer and make the bolts the impactors. What I proposed to do was cut the beam in half making a square c. Then I would run two bolts trough the roof and through the base along with about 5 bolts through the impactors along the wall. With the bowl the design will most likely finalize into an undercuter. Would I be wise to make tall impactors like that design but not mount through the roof?

Thanks as always. [Washington]

A: [Mark J.] Aha! I was picturing a much smaller cross-section beam in a different configuration and it wasn't making sense. Now I've got it.

Steel cooking pots Take your stainless steel mixing bowls back and get yourself a straight-sided steel cooking pot of suitable size. I'd leave off the angle over the top for the roof mount because spinner shells with a tall 'bracket shape' to their mass can run into stability problems -- see this previous post on spinner instability.

I'm not sure what shell dimensions you're contemplating, but to insure stability I'd restrict the height of each vertical impactor to no more than one-third the shell diameter. Example: 9" shell diameter => 3" max impactor height. That's a pure eyeball guess based on unstable spinners I've seen. You can try a taller impactor and trim it down if it gets funky at speed. You probably aren't going to hit anything more than a couple inches off the floor anyhow.

I'm assuming that you want two impactors. Using three impactors greatly reduces (eliminates?) any possible instability, but also reduces the impactor 'bite'. I think you'll be OK with two impactors.

Don't forget to put washers under the nuts securing the bolts on the inside!

Q: How do 3 impactors make a fbs more stable than 2 impactors? In my mind this makes it less balanced and therefore less stable. For a 10" fbs about 3" tall would you recommend 1,2,3, or 4 teeth. (Spinning at about 5000 rpm). Thanks.

A: I messed up the link to the previous post on spinner instability, but it's fixed now. Give that a read. The math gets really deep really fast.

A radially symmetric object with three primary masses can be perfectly balanced to spin in its axis of symmetry. Most small motor armatures have three iron poles. The trick here is that an object with three primary masses has identical moments of inertia for the two axis at right angles to the axis of symmetry. That effectively guarantees that rotation in the axis of rotation has either the greatest or smallest moment of inertia of the three possible spin axis and is therefore stable. The same cannot be said of a rotating mass with only two primary masses -- it may be stable or it may not.

Have you calculated the energy storage capacity for your shell? I know you likely don't have performance numbers for that motor that you had lying around, but you may find that it takes a very long time to spin a 10" diameter shell to 5000 RPM -- maybe too long for a small insect arena.

How many teeth?

  • One tooth: best bite, but can be a real problem to get balanced and may or may not be stable.

  • Two teeth: fair bite, easy to balance, may or may not be stable.

  • Three teeth: bite decreasing, easy to balance, almost certainly stable.

  • Four teeth: poor bite, easy to balance, probably stable.

Yes, there are tricks to increase bite for multiple impactors but I recommend staying simple, it's getting late, and this answer is long enough already. I'd go for two impactors. If it isn't stable we can fix it.

Q: Hi Mark. Beetle fbs guy again. So I took your advice and purchased a few stainless steel mixing bowls (keeping the receipts until the design is finalized). The great part is now the overall weight is down quite a bit. The bad is I no longer know how to mount the teeth I'd like to use considering that a bowl does not have a flat side to easily put bolts through or a place to mount easily on top or underneath. I was thinking about making some wood blocks and sanding them down for a easy mount for bolts but then this takes up interior space requiring a larger bowl. Any thoughts? [Washington]

A: [Mark J.] As I recall, you have hollow square steel beam that you want to use for impactors. You told me you planned to 'cut it in half' but you gave me no dimensions except the 1/4" wall thickness. I can't really picture what you're trying to do.

Bowl FBS spinner combat robots

Angle-sided 'bowl' spinners typically have fairly small impactors mounted along the lower lip of the bowl. They are long enough to allow for several mounting bolts thru the impactor and the lip. 'Sandwiching' the lip between the impactor and a fabricated metal reinforcing strip helps to strengthen the mounting.

Of course, if you want tall impactors you can always go with a straight-sided steel cooking pot...

Q: As you may remember I also am building a beetle lifter. A few weeks ago we discussed a servo lifter and you gave me an approximate lift time of 0.6 seconds. If my strategy is to box rush the opponent and back them into a wall then use the lifter this time is completely acceptable. However, I was wondering if a faster or more powerful lift was possible if I went with a traditional 4 bar design? If yes, then in four bar what bars would be extended/shortened to do this?

4-Bar Servo Lifter A: The balance between lift force and lift speed can be changed, but the product of the two will remain constant:

  • Double the lift speed by lengthening the 'F' bar, and your lift force will be cut in half.

  • Double the lift force by lengthening the 'H' bar, and your lift speed will be cut in half.

I'd suggest sticking to the approximate bar ratios I gave you in the earlier post.

Q: Your help has been greatly appreciated over this entire design process.

P.S. Would you mind if I named the fbs 'Bad Hamburger'?

A: Aaron was sure that somebody would eventually name a robot 'Bad Hamburger' as a reference to his unanswerable question analogy. Go for it.

JLX Overdrive R/C toy' Q: would the jlx overdrive be a good combat robot with a few modifications? [St. Louis, Missouri]

A: [Mark J.] No, for several reasons:

  • Like most R/C toys, it's designed for speed rather than pushing power. The tires are very low traction material to spin free on smooth surfaces rather than grip and bog down the motors.

  • It's pretty large and pretty heavy -- 15 inches long and just under under 5 pounds. The twin motors are 12 volt versions of the RS-380 and the drive gears/axles are plastic. That's too heavy for a beetleweight and not nearly powerful or durable enough for a hobbyweight.

  • It has a 27 MHz AM radio system that may not be acceptable at any specific tournament. Replacing it would require a new transmitter, receiver, and motor controllers.

By the time you made all the needed modifications I don't think there'd be anything left of the original vehicle.

Q: Hey Mark. I'm the beetle spinner guy, your answers have been extremely helpful, but I still have a few more questions:

1: There's been a lot of talk about wedges that can counter spinners, but what about the reverse? Whats a good weapon shape to counter wedges - specifically, a good weapon shape to counter the two big beetle brick kits, 'Trilobite' and 'D2'? If it wasn't important, then Ray wouldn't have three or four weapon bars to switch out for a given opponent.

2: On the same topic, whats a good blade shape for dealing with drums/egg-beaters('Grande Tambor' being the big one)? I know staying below or above the up-sweep zone is important, but other than that, whats a good shape for hitting drums where it hurts? [Molalla, Oregon]

Weapon bars available to heavyweight combat robot 'Last Rites' A: [Mark J.] Ray Billings' mind works in mysterious ways, and I don't know what specific logic he uses to select a specific chunk of metal to beat up his opponents (photo of 'Last Rites' bars at right). He claims he has a method, but he could be using tarot cards for all I know.

You really don't have a lot of options for blade variation with your "huge horizontal" beetle weapon:

  • You can install a sharp-edged blade to cut into soft armor materials like UHMW or aluminum for better 'bite';

  • You can drop in a flat-edged blade against harder surfaces like steel or titanium to deliver maximum impact;

  • You can swap in a titanium blade to make pretty sparks against hard steel alloys just for show;

  • You can mount a lighter blade against a quick opponent in a small arena to get a faster spin-up time.

Bottom line: There isn't much you can do with swapping blades to go against specific weapon types. All you can do is to consider what surfaces your blade is actually going to impact on your opponent and go blunt or sharp, and then guess on how quickly you need the weapon to spin-up. Sparks are optional.

Q: When you have a robot with 2 active weapons, such as a pincer at the front and a rear axe to self right, how do you change the Remote Control? [Brussels, Belgum]

A: [Mark J.] With two weapons (not a good idea), each is controlled by a separate r/c channel.

Q: And what is needed to programme weapons, and make the 6 wheel drive work?

A: Many, many posts on weapon and drivetrain control in the archives on these topics. Start with Frequently Asked Questions #19, read the Motors and Controllers archive, scan the Solenoid Control of Robot Weapon and Drive Motors FAQ, and then look thru the Radio & Electronics archive for any questions you still may have.

Q: And how do you control Mechanum wheels on an RC?

A: It's faster to check the archives before you ask a question -- that's previously discussed in the Ask Aaron Radio & Electronics archive.

You'll need a Mecanum R/C mixer - there's no 'h' in Mecanum. Note: a Mecanum drive robot has four wheels -- not six.

Q: Sir would you tel me that how to weight balance a robot.?
my bot size is 580X420X140 in LXBXH.
Its a wedge bot. and the weight of wedge is 10.5 KG and structure(with motor, hub and wheels) is 30 KG.
Please share if possible the images and link of weight balance.
Thankyou. [Bangalore, India]

A: [Mark J.] Weight balancing a 'bot is not difficult. The goal is to get the correct percentage of the robot's weight on each of the driven wheels -- so how many driven wheels does your robot have?

  • If you have four powered wheels you'll get best traction and maneuverability if 25% of the robot weight is on each of the powered wheels.

  • If you have only two powered wheels you'll get best traction with closer to 40% of the total weight of the robot on each of the drive wheels.

How do you do this? That depends on where you are in your design/build process.

  • If the robot is already built, all you can do is put the robot wheels on scales and move whatever components are relocatable to get the weight on the wheels as close to optimal as you can.

  • If you have your components selected but are still designing, you can 'mock up' a chassis from plywood with wooden blocks where the wheels might be. Set all your components on the mock chassis and check the mock wheel weights while you move the components and wheels around to get the weight balance just right.

  • If you're still in the pure design phase, there are CAD programs that will keep track of the robot's center of gravity as you design. Don't ask me 'which ones' -- I don't use 'em.

You want a link and an image? Go read section 2.7.7 of the RioBotz Combat Robot Tutorial.

Q: what are cheap but good wedge kits [St. Louis, Missouri]

A: [Mark J.] See Frequently Asked Questions #16:

'Cheap' and 'Combat Robot' don't go together!

I can say that the current version of the FingerTech Viper antweight kit is 'good', but I wouldn't call it 'cheap'. I don't know of any other complete combat wedge kits available at the moment, and the Viper is on back-order.

[24 hours later...]

Q: does the terminator sumo robot kit have everything you need or do you have to buy some items seperatly ?

A: You've been asking about combat robot kits, Missouri. Sumo robots are VERY different from combat robots, and you aren't going to have success in combat with a sumo kit.

To answer your question, the Terminator sumo kit is not complete. It requires battery, charger, R/C transmitter, R/C receiver, and motor controllers. You'll also need to replace the VERY slow motors and fabricate a wedge or other weapon.

If it was suitable for your purpose I would have mentioned it.

Q: is axe more effective or a hammer in robowar? [Bangalore, India]

A: [Mark J.] Neither is particularly effective. Of the two, I'd use a hammer -- axes can penetrate and get stuck in your opponent, which can cause all sorts of problems.

Q: I've got hold of a piezo gyro and a mixer for use in one of my latest projects, and in order to avoid the 'death spin' I have a small r/c bypass switch that allows me to shut down the gyro when the robot gets flipped. However, as a result of this, the steering signal now goes through at least half a metre more wire than the forwards/backwards signal, as well as two separate electronic devices (the gyro and bypass switch), before it reaches the mixer. Will this introduce any delays or interfere with the mixer, and should I think about shortening the wires? [Scotforth, England]

A: [Mark J.] Let's see, half a meter at the speed of light is about 0.000000003 second. I think you can live with that delay. The signals from the receiver to the ESCs aren't relative time-based anyhow.

I would shorten the r/c leads just to get rid of clutter and weight, but a bit of extra signal wire isn't a performance issue. You'll be fine.

Gyro wiring diagram

gyroscopic forces on a turning spinner robot Q: Can you explain the gyroscopic effect on a bot??? [Pasadena, California]

A: Not if you put three question marks on it -- that makes it three times as hard. Let me try editing...

Q: Can you explain the gyroscopic effect on a bot?? [Pasadena, California]

A: Nope, still too hard...

Q: Can you explain the gyroscopic effect on a bot? [Pasadena, California]

A: Ahhh, that's got it! Much better.

[Mark J.] Now, are you asking for an explanation of:

  1. The gyroscopic effect that lifts one side of a vertical spinner robot when it turns; or

  2. The effect that gyroscopic precession robots like 'Gyrobot' and 'Wrecks' use to walk?

Technically it's the same effect, but the explanations and diagrams are different. I kinda hope it's the first choice because I had that diagram drawn and the answer largely complete before I considered the alternative question. I'll put that diagram in here just because it's kinda pretty and I'd hate to see it go to waste.

Write back and let me know which question you're asking.

Q: I'm the guy who's designing the spinner beetle, and now I've settled on the electrical aspect of my bot, and now I'm working the (just as if not more important) mechanical aspects. My questions are:

1) As I'm using a live shaft for my (huge, horizontal) weapon, should I use ball bearings or needle bearings(They will be epoxied into the material)?

A: [Mark J.] I don't like the sound of 'epoxied into the material'. A standard shaft design will retain a flanged bearing in place without the need for adhesives to hold it. If an adhesive failure would result in a weapon failure in your design you should consider changing it.

Weapon shafts are best supported by ball bearings.

2) I'm using timing pulleys and belts, so how tight should the belt be? I'm trying to avoid having a belt tensioner(just another part to fail), but I also know that a belt that's too tight is just as bad as a belt that's too loose.

A: Timing belts are not like 'smooth' belts in that they do not directly rely on their tension to transmit power. The correct tension is 'just enough' to keep the belt teeth from 'jumping' out of the pulley grooves under load. You have a fairly large tension range -- a belt tensioner is generally not needed.

3) I know that my edger blade will fail eventually, so I was wondering, whats better for a one piece weapon, hardened S7, hardened 4130, or hardened AR400?

A: The requirements for the impact area and the rest of the blade are quite different, which makes a single piece blade a bit of a challenge. The impact area should be very hard and unyielding for durability and impact force transmission, while the rest of the blade must have a bit of resilience and toughness to survive the high impact loading without shattering.

  • S7 tool steel is the material of choice for impactors, but it's not ideal for a long and fairly thin blade like yours. I'd be worried about breakage.

  • AR400 is a wonderful armor material but it doesn't hold up well at the weapon impact site. The repeated impacts chip away bits of material, rounding the impactor off and making it less effective.

  • For your particular blade dimensions (9" by 2" by 0.12" from an earlier post) my preference of the three materials would be the 4130 chromoly, but I would selectively harden only the tips and leave the body of the blade in a tougher and more resilient state. I'm not usually a fan of 'backyard hardening', but it is possible to perform tip hardening yourself with a torch. Take a look at this steel hardening video. The case hardening powder used in the video is required for low-carbon steels but is optional for medium-carbon steel like 4130. Do use a water quench for chromoly.

4) Because I'm using a live shaft, should my weapon pulley be between the bearings, or outside them, or does it matter?

A: Your blade hub will be the major load on your bearing system and it should be placed as close to a bearing as possible. If you can get the weapon hub closer to a bearing by moving the pulley to a position between the bearings, that would be the preferred design.

5) Speaking of pulleys, should I use pulleys for my drive system(Using a fingertech 50:1 spark motor with 3" wheels at 11.1 volts) to isolate shock, or should I just risk it and directly drive my wheels of the motor? I might not have much weight so spare, so I'm not sure if wheel guards are in the cards for me. [Molalla, Oregon]

A: Keep it simple. You said it yourself in a question above: "...just another part to fail." If you're using the 3" Lite Flite wheels the spongy tire material will offer good protection from drivetrain shock. Get an extra set of the Lite Flights for your spares kit -- they rip up a bit if exposed.

Q: i plan to do a 4 bar lifter and i want 2 know if i powered it by 2 linear actuator who can provide 150lb of maximal charge, does it mean i get 300lb of power out of them? [Quebec, Canada]

A: [Mark J.] Yes, but that doesn't mean that your lifter has a 300 pound capacity.

  • Two 150 pound force actuators give you a maximum 300 pounds of force input to the 4-bar system.

  • The actual output force of the 4-bar lifter will vary with the attachment point of the actuators and the geometry of the 4-bar mechanism. The actuators for the 4-bar lifter of heavyweight 'BioHazard' provide more than 2,800 pounds of force to lift a 220 pound opponent. You will benefit from reading the BioHazard Mechanical Design page.

  • The force analysis of a 4-bar system is complex.

  • Actuators slow down as the load on them increases. An actuator that has a speed of 4 inches per second and a 100 pound force rating will slow to half that speed when loaded with 50 pounds, a quarter of that speed at 75 pounds, and will come to a full stop at 100 pounds of load.

There are many posts about linear actuators and designing 4-bar lifters in the Ask Aaron Weapons Archive. I'd suggest reading them.

Side note: 'pounds' is not a measure of 'power'; 'pounds' and 'newtons' are measures of 'force'. If you're building combat robots you should learn the difference. Start here.

Q: hello i plan to do a rammer bot to compete in the heavyweight class. i plan to use 1 cm (about 3/7") thick aluminum plate for the interior wall since the chassis will be made by these interior "wall" with the armor on the outside. my question is: i rarely see plate so thick use this manner in a bot and i wonder if they are too thick. [Quebec, Canada]

A: [Mark J.] It seems that you have a lot of plans, Quebec.

See Frequently Asked Questions #17, and be so kind as to read the rest of the FAQ while you are there.

See also The Hamburger is Bad.

Q: Hi there,

Regarding wedge design. I know that offensive wedge serve well as a spinner killer, but I would like to know if it will launch another wedge or pushers similarly? My wedge will be at an angle of 35 Deg from a initial angle of 15 Deg from the scooping tip , it will be moving at a speed of approx 2.5 m/s. Please note that I am building a sumo robot, not a combat robot. [Singapore]

A: [Mark J.] You're not going to get a 'launch' out of a shallow two-step wedge at that speed. Spinners provide most of the energy to launch themselves when they hit a wedge.

If you can get under your opponent's wedge, they may just be able to drive up and over your shallow wedge. Put a 'stop' barrier/lip at the top of the wedge to keep them from doing that!

Q: Hi Mark! Sage here.
Work is going steadily on the lightweight & things are starting to fall in place. All your help regarding the bot is greatly appreciated.
I've almost completed the final design of the bot including the weight analysis. The plow is 6mm thick AR400 and is fixed. Side & rear panels are 16mm thick and top & bottom covers are 6mm thick 6061-T6. Wheels are dual 5x2 Colsons on each side placed all the way back, 2wd (much like Ice Cube). Current weight is 51lb without accounting for bolts, wires, connectors & battery shock mount.
I have almost everything I need except the Ragebridge v2. Thing is I need to order an ESC soon, otherwise testing and driving practice would be compromised a bit. I was thinking about buying the Vantec RDFR23F (the 33A continuous version) but I couldn't understand a couple of things written in its manual:
  1. "The default PWM chopping frequency is the recommended 338 Hz. Install jumper JP1 to select 21.6 KHz. The RDFRs operate optimally in a radio environment at the default 338 Hz. At 21.6 KHz much more RFI is generated which requires additional RFI filters and the amperage must be derated to 30%."

    I'm using a 2.4GHz system.

  2. "Output current through the MOSFET transistors is compression limited above a threshhold by PWM duty cycle limiting. It works well for settings over 8 amps. As the controller heats up the current threshold is lowered. The threshhold adjustment trimpot for each output is factory set to defeat current limiting because most customers desire absolute maximum torque for their applications. CCW rotation decreases the limiter threshhold."

Lastly, if you could share some comments on the Vantec, it'd be of great help!
Thanks a lot! I'll send pictures of the bot, once it's done! [India]

A: [Mark J.] The classic Vantec controllers were designed more than 20 years ago. In the early days of combat robotics they were the best controllers available, but that is no longer the case. I can't think of a competitive combat robot built in the last 12 years that uses one. They are bulky, complex (as you have found from reading the manual), expensive, and lack features commonly found in more recently designed ESCs. If you look thru the Ask Aaron archives you will not find a single instance where we recommend a Vantec controller.

For purely informational purposes:

  1. Electronic Speed Controllers operate by rapidly switching the current on and off. The rate at which the current is switched is the 'chopping frequency'. Modern ESCs have chopping frequencies above 20 KHz to prevent the audible 'buzz' present in ESCs operating at lower frequencies. They do this without requiring a de-rating of the controller capacity, and without RF interference. Chopper frequency has nothing to do with the frequency of your radio gear. This is antiquated Vantec technology.

  2. The RDFR controllers have protective circuitry that can reduce the maximum current flow thru the controller as the controller starts to overheat. The problem here is that a very high current surge can destroy the controller before the temperature sensors ever notice that there is a problem. This type of protection is far inferior to the 'true' current sensing available in controllers like the Ragebridge.
There are better controllers for combat robots than the Vantecs -- use one of them.

Q: Hey just wanna know i plan to do a heavyweight 4 bar lifter wich will looks very much like storm 2. My question is: the front ofthe robot will have a angle of 45 degree with the design i have in mind, i want to know if its too much to be able to push opponent? [Quebec, Canada]

A: [Mark J.] Well, 'Storm 2' had a 45 degree front wedge. It worked pretty well for them.

Q: i just wanna know if a 45 degree wedge will be able to ''deflect'' a spinner like defensive wedge do?

A: Take a look at successful 'spinner killer' wedges. They're all much shallower than 45 degrees.

Q:Sir ...I am student of class 12th....sir I have participated in a robowar conpitition which is held on ...3rd - 5th September... Sir I don't know anything about that ....sir can u help me for that ....the specification of that robot is maximum 60 kg ..n voltage supply is 220v and 10 amp current at each n every point of motor....sir pls give me suggestion for motor, battery n attack used in that boat ...sir pls help me . [Delhi, India]

A: [Mark J.] No, for two reasons:
  1. All proper robot organizations in India have forbidden the use of 220 volt AC power for combat robots. It is incredibly dangerous to use line voltage to operate robowar competitors. I won't encourage such unsafe events by offering specific help to their competitors.

  2. An enormous library of information on robot design and component selection is already here at 'Ask Aaron' for your use. You'll find the answers to the very basic questions you're asking. Start with the Frequently Asked Questions and browse the archives.
Read the FAQ!

Remembering Aaron... 

Q: how can robots help us deal better with hurricanes and why? [Ontario, California]

A: [Aaron] Few people in Nebraska are threatened by hurricanes, so send a swarm of killer robots into low Atlantic and gulf coastal areas to drive the puny human inhabitants toward Nebraska. Problem solved.

Robot haiku:

That's obviously
A question from your homework.
Do your own research.

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